Parkinson's disease is a disorder of
the brain that leads to shaking
(tremors) and difficulty with walking,
movement, and coordination.
People with Parkinson’s slowly lose
cells called neurons in a region of the
brain called the substantia nigra.

Neurons in the substantia nigra
produce a chemical known as
dopamine, which is responsible for
movement. When these neurons die,
there’s not enough dopamine in the
brain and this causes the four cardinal
motor symptoms – tremor, slow
movements, stiffness and loss of

Pico-Tesla  has commenced a Phase
III clinical trial of its patented Resonator
system that facilitates the Company's
proprietary magnetic (Magneceutical)
therapy for treating Parkinson's
disease patients. In a Phase II clinical
trial, Magneceutical Therapy
demonstrated significant improvement
over placebo after 8 weeks  of   
therapy.  The   improvement persisted
up to 2 months  post-treatment and no
treatment-related adverse events were

Magneceutical Therapy involves the
use of an extremely low-level
electromagnetic field (EMF) applied by
a specially designed device-the
Resonator, invented by Dr. Jerry I.
Jacobson, along with proprietary
therapeutic protocols-intended to
improve a number of the signs and
symptoms of Parkinson's and other
neurological-based diseases.
Parkinson's disease  affects 1.5 million
people in the U.S., with 60,000 news
cases diagnosed each year.

Impax Pharmaceuticals conducts a
multinational Phase III trial of its drug
candidate IPX066 in subjects with early
Parkinson's disease.
The APEX-PD study is a randomized,
double blind, placebo-controlled study
to evaluate the safety and efficacy of
IPX066 in subjects with early
Parkinson's disease.
IPX066 is an extended release
carbidopa-levodopa product intended
to rapidly achieve and sustain effective
blood concentrations of levodopa,
potentially improving PD clinical
symptom management.

A team from Karolinska Institute in
Sweden has managed to pass
messages within the mind in the same
way as nerve cells do, using a tiny
piece of plastic which can transmit
Nerve cells in the brain release and
use neurotransmitters, or chemicals
that talk to each other.
The new artificial cells can do the
same, opening up potential treatments,
the researchers claim.

Combining deep brain stimulation
(DBS) implant surgery with standard
drug treatment has been found to give
greater improvement in motor function
and to reduce symptoms more than
drug treatment alone.
Treatment with DBS involves
implanting wire electrodes into the
brain. These electrodes are attached
to a "pacemaker" device, which
regularly sends electrical impulses
through the electrodes and into the
Studies have shown that a "brain
pacemaker" called deep brain
stimulation (DBS) is an effective
treatment for Parkinson's disease.
But there's been debate over what
region of the brain to stimulate -- the
globus pallidus interna or the
subthalamic nucleus. Now, a major
study published in the June 3, 2010
New England Journal of Medicine is
showing that stimulating either region
resulted in similar improvements in
motor function. There were small
differences in non-motor effects such
as mood and cognitive function.

The equipment, made by  Medtronic, is
based on pacemaker technology.The
patient will always have the
'Parkinson's pacemaker'. The patient
has 24-hour control over the machine.
If she wants, she can switch the
machine off at night to save batteries.
The operation is traumatic. A metal
cage, called a stereotactic frame,is
fastened to the patient's head. She
then has a magnetic resonance scan,
which gives a picture of the brain with
the metal frame around it. 'By fairly
simple geometry, we can work out our
targets relative to the frame,' says her
doctor. 'We study the images, and the
computer in the scanner tells me
where to go. 'I go in a millimetre at a
time - the subthalamic nucleus is half
the size of a peanut. We work through
thumbnail-size holes at the front of the
head.' When the electrode is in the
right position, it is fixed in place with a
plastic button on the skull. The frame
was taken off and, under general
anaesthetic, the wires were tunnelled
under the skin over the top of the head
and behind the ears. The processor
sits over the collarbone in the chest
Switching on the processors a couple
of days after surgery was dramatic.
After adjustments were done, the
patient stood up without help and
walked into the arms of her husband.

Activa PC and the Activa RC by
Medtronic are deep brain stimulation
The conclusions from a major study on
deep-brain stimulation (DBS)
published in the New England Journal
of Medicine seemed rather anti-
climatic, at least on the surface.

There was no real difference between
implanting a DBS device in the globus
pallidus interna (GPI) and subthalamic
nucleus (SN) regions of the brains in
patients suffering from Parkinson’s
disease. Each worked equally as well.

But for Medtronic Inc. which funded the
study, the results are significant
because it gives doctors more flexibility
(and clinical comfort) in using its Activa
PC and RC devices, the first and only
DBS devices approved by the Food
and Drug Administration to treat
movement disorders in the United
States. And greater flexibility means a
greater pool of potential patients.

Neurologix believes that an inhibitory
gene (glutamic acid decarbolylase or
"GAD") can be used to selectively
mimic normal physiology and alter the
neural circuitry affected in Parkinson's
disease.The GAD gene  is responsible
for synthesizing gamma aminobutyric
acid ("GABA"), which is released by
nerve cells to inhibit or dampen activity.

The company's gene transfer
treatment is the only non-dopamine
gene therapy strategy currently in
development. It is designed to reset
the overactive brain cells to inhibit
electrical activity and return brain
network activity to more normal levels.
This in turn reduces symptoms of
Parkinson's disease, including tremors,
rigidity and slowness of movement.
The therapy is designed to be
administered without destroying brain
tissue and without implanting a
permanent medical device.
FDA granted Fast Track Designation
for the company's Parkinson's
The ongoing controlled, double
blinded, 44 patient Phase 2 trial is
investigating the safety and efficacy of
a novel non-dopamine approach to
restore motor function in Parkinson's
patients who are sub-optimally
responsive to available drug therapy.  
The investigators of the Phase 2
clinical trial are assessing each of the
trial participants over time for
treatment effects, with the primary trial
endpoint being a clinical assessment
of motor function at 6 months using the
Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating
Scale (UPDRS). All participants in the
trial will also be monitored for safety for
12 months following their gene transfer

Rush University Medical Center is
participating in a large-scale, multi-
center clinical trial in the U.S. and
Canada to determine whether
coenzyme Q10 in high doses, can slow
the progression of Parkinson's disease.
Coenzyme Q10, is produced naturally
in the body and is an important link in
the chain of chemical reactions that
produce energy in mitochondria, the
"powerhouses" of cells.
The Phase III clinical trial follows an
earlier investigation that tested several
doses of coenzyme Q10 in a small
group of patients with early-stage
Parkinson's disease. The highest
dose, 1,200 mg, appeared promising.