Bladder cancer:

Bladder cancer is a cancerous tumor
in the bladder -- the organ that holds

A phase II clinical trial led by
researchers at the USC Norris
Comprehensive Cancer Center found
that the drug eribulin was effective in
treating patients with advanced
bladder cancer.
In the trial of 40 patients, 42 percent
had significant tumor shrinkage, said
study principal investigator David I.
Quinn, M.D., associate professor of
medicine at the Keck School of
Medicine of USC and medical director
of the USC Norris Cancer Hospital.

The drug, which is made from black
Pacific sea sponge toxin, has been
shown in early trials to be effective in
treating urinary cancer, breast cancer
and lung cancer, Quinn said.

"Our results indicate that eribulin can
also be administered to patients with
moderate to severe renal impairment,"
he said. "It's well tolerated and
patients like it. I think it's going to
have significant active use in a
number of cancers."
The drug is made by Eisai.

Mitomycin C Versus Bacillus Calmette-
The purpose of this study is to
compare the bladder cancer
treatments, Mitomycin C (MMC) and
Bacillus Calmette Guerin (BCG), to
find out which is better. In this study,
the patient will get either the
Mitomycin C (MMC) or the Bacillus
Calmette Guerin (BCG). They will not
get both.

The patient has a Transurethral
Resection (TUR) to make the
diagnosis of bladder cancer. A biopsy
was done and removed any tumors
the doctor saw. Even after the doctor
removes the tumors, the cancer can
return. In this case, the doctor will put
medicine into the bladder to destroy
cancer cell. This is called intravesical
therapy. The two most commonly
used drugs for this purpose are MMC
and BCG.
Mitomycin C is a chemotherapy drug.
It works by sticking the cancer cell’s
DNA (the cell’s genetic code) together
so that it can not come apart again.
This means that the cell cannot divide
so the cancer cannot grow. It is a
treatment for bladder cancer, rectal
cancer, sometimes for pancreatic,
lung and breast cancers.
It is not clear how Bacillus Calmette-
Guerin (BCG) works to treat bladder
cancer. It may stimulate an immune
response or cause inflammation of the
bladder wall that destroys cancer cells
within the bladder.  It is most often
used after cancer has been removed
from the bladder using transurethral
resection (TUR) surgery.

Trial no:NCT00974818

To date, fluorescence and narrow
band imaging cystoscopy have been
tested in many prospective within
patient trials but only as an "add on"
procedure. This results in a bias that
does not allow to determine the real
impact of such innovative
technologies on bladder cancer
management. This  first prospective
randomized trial  compares narrow
band imaging trans urethral resection
as a stand alone procedure versus
white light transurethral resection.
Narrow Band Imaging (NBI) is an
optical filter technology that radically
improves the visibility of capillaries,
veins and other subtle tissue
structures, by optimising the
absorbance and scattering
characteristics of light.

Trial no: NCT01004211

EOquin, or apaziquone, is intended to
treat bladder cancer by Spectrum
Pharma and  Allergan