Breast cancer procedures:

Breast cancer is a cancer that starts in
the tissues of the breast.

There are two main types of breast
Ductal carcinoma starts in the tubes
(ducts) that move milk from the breast
to the nipple. Most breast cancers are
of this type.
Lobular carcinoma starts in parts of
the breast, called lobules, that produce

Women with breast cancer could soon
be offered a single 30-minute shot of
radiotherapy - sparing them six weeks
of exhausting treatment.
The technique is known as targeted
intraoperative radiotherapy.
At present, conventional radiotherapy
is offered to all women who have
breast conserving surgery, where just
the lump is removed rather than the
whole breast. It involves 22 hospital
visits by women spread over five to six
weeks to reduce side effects, such as
tissue shrinkage.
Findings from the TARGIT trial prove
intraoperative radiotherapy has a
comparable recurrence rate, of around
one per cent, with a reduction in side
The one-shot treatment is delivered by
the portable  Intrabeam machine,
manufactured by the Karl Zeiss
Corporation in Germany.
The machine cost USD 450,000.00.

Hologic Selenia  Digital Mammography
system is a  digital (computerized)
mammography which  is one of the
most recent advances in X-ray
In standard (analog) mammography,
images are recorded on film using an
X-ray cassette. The film is viewed by a
radiologist using a "light box" and then
stored in a jacket in the facility's
archives. With digital mammography,
the breast image is captured using a
special electronic X-ray detector, which
converts the image into a digital
picture for review on a computer
monitor. The digital mammogram is
then stored on the computer.
Radiologists who perform digital
mammograms can alter the orientation,
brightness and contrast of the image
after the exam is completed to more
clearly see certain areas if needed.
One of the most obvious benefits of
digital mammography is clear, crisp
imagery. Much more detail can be
seen in a digital image than in a
traditional film image, which leads to
more tumor detection at earlier stages.
This especially  useful for younger
women with dense breasts because it
can image them with significant detail.

Intensity Modulated Radiotherapy
(IMRT) to reduce skin burn and pain;

Electronic Brachytherapy Delivers Non-
Radioactive Therapy;

Mammosite therapy by Cytyc;

Sentinel lymph node biopsy to prevent
need to remove nodes;

Photodynamic therapy in trial at
London’s Royal Free Hospital, doctor:
Mo Keshtgar;