Cancer vaccines:

Cancer is the uncontrolled growth of
abnormal cells in the body. Cancerous
cells are also called malignant cells.



SUMMARY OF CANCER VACCINES IN
PHASE 3 CLINICAL TRIALS

Company (location)        
Product description        
Indication

Antigenics (Lexington,
Massachusetts)        HSPPC-96
Oncophage: heat-shock protein
vaccine isolated from patient tumor
cells        Melanoma, Glioma, Renal
cell carcinoma

BioVest International (Tampa,
Florida)        Biovaxid: patient-specific
immunoglobulin idiotype vaccine
conjugated to the immunogenic protein
KLH        Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma

Genitope (Fremont, California)        
Patient-specific immunoglobulin
idiotype-KLH conjugate        Non-
Hodgkin's lymphoma

GlaxoSmithKline (Brentford, UK)        
MAGE: liposomally packaged tumor-
specific antigen        Melanoma, Lung
cancer

Northwest Biotherapeutics (Bethesda,
Maryland)        DCVax: patient-derived
dendritic cells loaded with cancer
proteins or lysates        Prostate
cancer, Brain cancer

NovaRX (San Diego)        Lucanix: four
cell lines carrying antisense oligos
against transforming growth factor        
Lung cancer

Oncothyreon (Seattle)        Stimuvax:
liposomal vaccine with a synthetic
peptide derived from tumor-specific
antigen MUC-1        Lung cancer

Oxford Biomedica (Oxford, UK)        
TroVax: pox viral vector carrying tumor-
associated antigen 5T4        Renal cell
carcinoma




VACCINE PROVENGE BY DENDREON
The April 29 approval of Seattle-based
Dendreon's prostate cancer vaccine,
Provenge (sipuleucel-T), is being
hailed as a victory for cancer
immunotherapy. For Dendreon, the US
Food and Drug Administration's (FDA)
go-ahead marks the end of a tortuous
regulatory path, marked not only by
missteps by the company but also by
controversy at the FDA.


DCVAX VACCINE TO TREAT BRAIN
CANCER
Northwest Biotherapeutics' DCVax
immunotherapy vaccine is aimed at
treating brain cancer.
In the case of Glioblastoma, the
median time from initial diagnosis to
death with full standard of care
treatment - surgery, radiation and
chemotherapy - is only about 14.6
months. With NWBT's DCVax-Brain
vaccine added, that survival time is
extended to a median time of about
36.4 months in clinical trials thus far.
The DCVax works by using the
patient's dendritic cells, which are
called "the general of the army," to
mobilize the "foot soldiers," such as T-
cells, to fight the cancer.
Malignant brain tumors often recur
within seven months of their removal,
and in 14 months, you're dead. We
saw that with Ted Kennedy and he had
access to every medical treatment on
the planet.
Patients in trials receiving DCVax had
a median survival of 38.7 months,
versus 25.9 months for Provenge.
Also, 64 percent of patients receiving
DCVax survived three years, versus 34
percent for Provenge.

DCVax-Brain now in Phase II/III clinical
trials. It is entirely personalized for
each recipient and, to date, its power
and success has begun to cause the
sudden stir.
Under the standard of care treatment,
less than 5% of Glioblastoma patients
are still alive after 5 years. Just as
significant, 80% of all the patients
receiving the treatment experienced a
positive response – far better than the
typical 25% response rate for most
cancer drugs. And, unlike
chemotherapy, DCVax vaccines are
non-toxic and are well tolerated.
What's more, DCVax is non-toxic with
no serious side effects, and is a far
more cost effective treatment option
over chemotherapy for both the patient
and the healthcare system at large.



CDX-110 VACCINE USES THE BODY'S
IMMUNE SYSTEM AGAINST
GLIOBLASTOMA
A new vaccine CDX-110  uses the
body's own immune system to attack
tumor cells. It won't  work on every
GBM patient, just the 40 percent
whose tumors make one particular
protein. In those patients, it  works like
a smart bomb.
An interim analysis of the clinical trial
data showed that the vaccine CDX-110
prolong the lifetime of 70% patients
afflicted with glioblastoma multiforme
(GBM) – the most deadly form of brain
cancer — without worsening their
symptoms.
CDX-110 is an immunotherapy that
targets the tumor specific molecule
called EGFRvIII. CDX-110 is designed
to activate the patient’s immune
response against tumor cells
specifically expressing the EGFRvIII
mutation.
This protein is a variant of the
epidermal growth factor receptor
(EGFR), and is found in brain cancer
causing cells.
Unlike EGFR, EGFRvIII is not present
in normal tissues. This makes it a safer
option as   it will enable the
development of a tumor-specific
therapy for cancer patients.
CDX is currently being developed by
Celldex Therapeutics in collaboration
with Pfizer Inc.


OTHER DEVELOPMENTS
Stimuvax cancer vaccine for breast
tumor patients by Merck KGaA;

Transgene's TG4010 compound
targets lung tumors;


Antigenics kidney cancer vaccine
Oncophage;