Kidney dialysis:

Chronic kidney disease includes
conditions that damage your kidneys
and decrease their ability to keep you
healthy by doing the jobs listed.  You
may develop complications like high
blood pressure, anemia (low blood
count), weak bones, poor nutritional
health and nerve damage.
These problems may happen slowly
over a long period of time.
Chronic kidney disease may be
caused by diabetes, high blood
pressure and other disorders. When
kidney disease progresses, it may
eventually lead to kidney failure,

In April 2012 three products for
patients with end stage renal disease
(ESRD) have been chosen to
participate in the FDA’s Innovation
Pathway, an evolving system designed
to help develop  medical devices.

The FDA selected three from 32
product applications ranging from an
artificial kidney to devices that assist
kidney function.

The three products are:

  • An implantable Renal Assist
    Device (iRAD) being developed
    by the University of California,
    San Francisco.
  • A Wearable Artificial Kidney
    (WAK) in development by Blood
    Purification Technologies Inc. of
    Beverly Hills, Calif.
  • A Hemoaccess Valve System
    (HVS) that has been designed
    by Greenville, S.C.-based
    CreatiVasc Medical.

ESRD is the progressive loss in kidney
function over a period of months or
years. The kidneys play an essential
role, filtering and removing waste from
the body and producing hormones that
are responsible for calcium absorption
and red blood cell production.

The FDA chose ESRD because more
than half a million Americans suffer
from the disease. Management of the
disease is largely dependent upon
medical device technology, such as
hemodialysis (process for removing
waste products) equipment. Most
dialysis patients spend long hours in
specialized outpatient clinics, impacting
their quality of life and reducing
productivity. Medicare alone covers
some 75 percent of ESRD health care
costs, which in 2009 topped $29 billion.

The UCSF artificial kidney, or
implantable Renal Assist Device
(iRAD) would include thousands of
microscopic filters as well as a
bioreactor to mimic the metabolic and
water-balancing roles of a real kidney.

The combined treatment has been
proven to work for the sickest patients
using a room-sized external model
developed by a team member at the
University of Michigan.The goal is to
apply silicon fabrication technology,
along with specially engineered
compartments for live kidney cells, to
shrink that large-scale technology into
a device the size of a coffee cup. The
device would then be implanted in the
body, allowing the patient to live a
more normal life.

There are two main types of home
1.Home hemodialysis: Home
hemodialysis uses a dialysis machine
to clean the blood. The patient's blood
flows from his or her vascular access
through a dialysis machine to be
cleansed of extra waste and fluids and
sent back into the body.
2.Peritoneal dialysis: Peritoneal
dialysis uses the thin membrane,
called the peritoneum, which lines the
abdomen to perform dialysis
treatments. A cleansing fluid is put into
the patient's abdomen through a small,
flexible tube called a PD catheter.
Once they are trained, home dialysis
patients are able to perform their
dialysis treatments at home where they
are most comfortable. Many home
dialysis patients dialyze more
frequently than in-center patients. The
more frequent treatments get blood
cleaner and leave patients feeling

Home Dialysis Plus, a Portland medical
technology company  has developed a
portable kidney dialysis machine for
home use, freeing patients from having
to visit clinics several times a week for
three-hour treatment sessions. Others
already offer home treatment options,
but HD Plus says its technology is
easier to use and may improve
patients' quality of life.
In 2008, Hewlett-Packard Co. licensed
its inkjet technology to HD Plus to help
mix the salt, electrolyte and water
solution used in dialysis. HD Plus
applies the microfluidic technology HP
developed for printers to kidney